April 2021

This list includes all studies we know of published in the respective month that are:

  • Empirical (original, meta-analysis, or review of empirical studies), and

  • about advocating for farmed animals (rather than, for example, the welfare of farmed animals themselves) or,

  • provide evidence from basic empirical research that may be of interest to farmed animal advocates.

Previous versions: Previous lists

Please send any suggestions for this list to manja.gartner@animalcharityevaluators.org.

Animal-free products

CE Delft (2021). LCA of cultivated meat, Future projections for different scenarios. Link to pdf

Szejda, K. & Urbanovich, T. (2021). New Materials Nomenclature Assessment. Link to pdf

Diet change

Dakin, B. C., Ching, A. E., Teperman, E., Klebl, C., Moshel, M., & Bastian, B. (2021). Prescribing vegetarian or flexitarian diets leads to sustained reduction in meat intake. Appetite, 105285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2021.105285

Florença, S. G., Correia, P. M. R., Costa, C. A., & Guiné, R. P. F. (2021). Edible Insects: Preliminary Study about Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge on a Sample of Portuguese Citizens. Foods, 10(4), 709. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040709

Karasu, K., & Ozturk, E. (2021). Effects of Allegations Regarding the Use of Antibiotics and Hormones in Diets on Consumer Perceptions, Attitudes and Behaviors towards Broiler Meat Consumption. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 9(4), 675–682. https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v9i4.675-682.3914

Laukkanen, S. (2021). Consumers' willingness to purchase plant-based meat substitutes. LUT University grad work, http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi-fe202104019232

Nguyen, A., & Platow, M. J. (2021). “I’ll eat meat because that’s what we do”: The Role of National Norms and National Social Identification on Meat Eating. Appetite, 105287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2021.105287

Odetokun, Ismail A., Baasim O. Borokinni, Samiat D. Bakare, Ibraheem Ghali-Mohammed, Nma B. Alhaji (2021). A Cross-Sectional Survey of Consumers’ Risk Perception and Hygiene of Retail Meat: A Nigerian Study. Food Protection Trends, May 2021, Volume 41, Issue 3: Pages 274–283. Link to website

Sparkman, G., Macdonald, B. N. J., Caldwell, K. D., Kateman, B., & Boese, G. D. (2021). Cut back or give it up? The effectiveness of reduce and eliminate appeals and dynamic norm messaging to curb meat consumption. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 75, 101592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101592

Topf, S., & Speekenbrink, M. (2021). I’ll Have What She’s Had! Popularity Beliefs Moderate the Preference for Scarce Options in the Choice of Food Items. Center for Open Science. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/kuatz

Social change

Dullaghan, N. et al. (2021). Rethink Priorities National Poll. Link to doc

Harris, J. (2021). Social Movement Lessons from the Fair Trade Movement. Link to Sentience Institute website

Özkaya, Feyza Tekinbaş & Mustafa Gürol Durak & Onur Doğan & Zeki Atıl Bulut & Rainer Haas, 2021. "Sustainable Consumption of Food: Framing the Concept through Turkish Expert Opinions," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(7), pages 1-25, April. Link

Animal welfare campaigns

Billington, T. & Kirsch, J.J. (2021). Fish Welfare in the UK. CAWF Research Report: Fish Welfare. Link to pdf

Dullaghan, N. (2021). Strategic considerations for upcoming EU farmed animal legislation. For RethinkPriorities, link to post in EA Forum post

European Commission (2021). Evaluation of the EU strategy on Animal Welfare. Link to website

Hvas, M., Folkedal, O., & Oppedal, F. (2020). Fish welfare in offshore salmon aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 13(2), 836–852. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12501

Rowe, A. (2021). Silk production: global scale and animal welfare issues. For RethinkPriorities, link to EA Forum post

Sarek, K. et al. (2021). Why we want to start a charity fortifying feed for hens (founders needed). Post in EA Forum

Sarek, K. et al. (2021). Why we want to start a shrimp welfare charity (founders needed). Post in EA Forum


Aird, M. (2021). On the longtermist case for working on farmed animals [Uncertainties & research ideas]. Link to EA Forum post

Animal Ask (2021). Measuring Animal Welfare. Philosophical foundations, practical indicators and overall assessments. Link to pdf

Compassion in World Farming (2021). Evaluate Your Plate. Link to website


Thanks to suggestions by the RECAP group, the Fish Advocacy Slack group, the research library of Faunalytics, the FAST list, and suggestions by ACE staff. I also did a search on Google Scholar using the search terms intext:(“meat” AND “consumer behavior”); intext:(“meat” AND “attitudes”); and intext:(“meat” AND “preferences”); after:2021-03-30. (To be improved!)